Monday, December 18, 2017


Kidney stones (called renal calculi (from Latin ren, renes, “kidney” and calculi, “pebbles” in medical parlance) are solid concretions or crystal aggregations formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine. Kidney stones are typically classified by their location in the kidney (nephrolithiasis), ureter (ureterolithiasis), or bladder (cystolithiasis), or by their chemical composition (calcium-containing, struvite, uric acid, or other compounds). Kidney stones are a significant source of morbidity. 80% of those with kidney stones are men. Men most commonly experience their first episode between age 30–40 years, while for women the age at first presentation is somewhat later.